Apr 19, 2022
In Fashion Forum
Marxism in the lead, envisioned a India Phone Number List socialism that mixed Marxist economic positions with Kantian ethics. The British, for their part, derived their particular socialism (associated with the Labor Party, but also in its beginnings with the Social Democratic Federation and Independent Labour) from the "non-conformist" religious India Phone Number List tradition, from some sections of Marxism, Fabianism and Whig splits. The Germans held positions straddling the orthodox Marxism of Karl Kautsky who came to be considered the "pope of Marxism" – and revisionist positions such as that of Eduard Bernstein, the "national" heritage India Phone Number List of Ferdinand Lasalle and other societal currents. Already at that time at the India Phone Number List height of the Second International, between the 1890s and the 1910s it was perceptible that the "socialist identity" differed between the sister parties and also within them (according to India Phone Number List the diversity of currents As variable as the considerations of the parties were, socialism was their hallmark. Even after the triumph of the Russian Revolution, socialist and social democratic parties and organizations continued to claim the term for themselves. They India Phone Number List compromised with (sometimes even ruled) the prevailing political systems, held violently antagonistic positions on so-called 'imperialist wars', and expressed differences on nationalism and patriotism. But even so they continued to affirm, at least rhetorically, socialism as a cause and a India Phone Number List project. So much so that the opposition to India Phone Number List Soviet Russia – which was very variable according to each party – did not lead the European democratic socialists to abandon socialism, but to their affirmation: they had to demonstrate that progress could be made in a structural reform carried out democratically and with a India Phone Number List guarantee of freedoms. The fact that other leftist traditions claimed that they were not "truly socialist" does not express, in terms of tradition of culture and identity, that they had ceased to be so. But the defense of that "socialist identity" was not going to last forever. The transformation India Phone Number List that took place in the socialist and social democratic parties during the second post-war period marked a shift in the meaning of the "socialist" signifier within.